Alliance Party
Founded: 13 January 1952
Dissolved: 1 July 1974
Symbol: Sailboat
Began as a union of UMNO and MCA, key ethnic organisations in Malaya representing the two largest Malay and Chinese communities respectively, it was officially registered on 23 August 1953. UMNO, set up by Onn Ja'afar, was headed by Tunku Abdul Rahman and MCA, inspired by China's Kuomintang, by Tan Cheng Lock. MIC, formed and led by John Thivy to represent Malaya Indians, joined the coalition on 17 October 1954. Modelled after India's Congress Party, MIC previously aligned with Independence of Malaya Party to oppose UMNO-MCA. From 1955 to 1969, Alliance won every nationwide election in the Federation of Malaya and later Malaysia but fared below expectations in the General Election of 1969 despite being returned to power, a result that triggered ethnic tensions cumulating into the May 13 racial riots. To stabilise the country, national leaders conceptualised a unity government in 1972 and established coalitions with four opposition parties in 1973 for a start. BN was born and was officially registered on 1 June 1974, while Alliance was gradually phased out. With up to 14 component parties at its peak, BN linchpin UMNO produced all of Malaysia's Prime Ministers, namely the Tunku, Abdul Razak Hussein, Onn's son Hussein Onn, Dr Mahathir Mohamad, Abdullah Badawi and Razak's son Najib Razak, until 2018 when Dr Mahathir led the opposition Pakatan Harapan (Hope Coalition) to victory to become the first non-BN PM in Malaysia's history. After losing power in the GE, several parties left BN and it dwindled down to mostly the original Alliance components.
Component parties
13 Feb 1988 - Present
United Malays National Organisation
11 May 1946 - 4 Feb 1988
Malayan Chinese Association
@ Malaysian Chinese Association
Malayan Indian Congress
@ Malaysian Indian Congress
Related organisation
Barisan Nasional
(English: National Front)